Before you do anything else, listen to Katharine Hayhoe explain climate change…




The science clearly linking climate change to human activity has been confirmed repeatedly for over 50 years. To quote from NASA, “Multiple studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals show that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate-warming trends over the past century are extremely likely due to human activities.” 

During the same 50 years a fossil-fuel supported misinformation campaign has fought back, misleading the public and affecting the education of children and the legislation desperately needed. The IPCC (the United Nations) and the NCA (the US Federal Government) have issued report after report, often reporting that previous assessments had been too optimistic or that scientists had actually underestimated the pace and severity of the climate problem. 

Most of the leading scientific organizations throughout the world have issued public statements endorsing the position that climate change has been caused by human action.

In November, 2019, on the 40th anniversary of the world’s first climate conference, 11,000 scientists from 153 nations declared, in a Bioscience report, “clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency and that we must change how we live.” The scientists say the urgent changes needed include ending population growth, leaving fossil fuels in the ground, halting forest destruction, and slashing meat eating.

As you explore the different sections in SCIENCE, you will find that climate change has created a web of interconnected relationships that are compounding the consequences we face. 

Setting records for the number of storms and wildfires, the contiguous USA ranked fifth warmest during 2020, according to a report issued by the NCEI, published on January 8, 2021.

Looking for a searchable chronology of climate-change events dating from 1824  to the present? Look no further, thanks to the University of Maine’s Sharon Tisher.

This visualization shows monthly global temperature anomalies (changes from an average) between the years 1880 and 2021. Whites and blues indicate cooler temperatures, while oranges and reds show warmer temperatures. As you can see, global temperatures have warmed from mainly human activities as time has progressed.
These temperatures are based on data from NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). Anomalies are defined relative to a base period of 1951 to 1980. The data file used to create this visualization can be accessed here.



Climate Change 2021The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers

This Summary for Policymakers (SPM) presents key findings of the Working Group I (WGI) contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)1

Climate Time Machine

This visualization shows the annual Arctic sea ice minimum since 1979. At the end of each summer, the sea ice cover reaches its minimum extent, leaving what is called the perennial ice cover. The area…

Earth Observing Dashboard

Global environmental changes observed by NASA, ESA, and JAXA . Here you can browse the Earth Observation datasets and use the interactive features, including maps that compute simple analytics by drawing an area of interest.…

State of the Global Climate Observing System 2021

As the impacts of a warming climate become more evident, there is an ever-increasing demand for more detailed information on climate change, both to explain and project changes and to help planning and implementing adaptation…

Video: Global Warming from 1880 to 2020

Earth’s global average surface temperature in 2020 tied with 2016 as the warmest year on record, according to an analysis by NASA. Continuing the planet’s long-term warming trend, the year’s globally averaged temperature was 1.84…

Making climate impact science more accessible to the public: ISIpedia launch

Decision-makers on all levels are provided with a new tool to tackle the climate challenge. Data and explanations on global warming impacts – from floods to droughts - are made more accessible to the public…

How Scientists Are Using the International Space Station to Study Earth’s Climate

On Earth, we often look toward the sky, longing to know what resides in the rest of the universe. Meanwhile, 250 miles above our planet, the International Space Station is looking back.

Understanding Climate Change

JPL scientists study Earth’s changing climate, focusing on four broad themes: icy regions; the movement of water between sea, air, and land; greenhouse gas emissions and absorption; and our world’s ecosystems.

Climate at a glance

Look up monthly rankings for 1-12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60-month time periods using this tool from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Less than 2 °C warming by 2100 unlikely

Our model is not a ‘business as usual’ scenario, but rather is based on data which already show the effect of emission mitigation policies. Achieving the goal of less than 1.5 °C warming will require carbon…

Reduced dividends on natural capital?

Natural capital provides the world’s population with a variety of critical services. These include ecosystem services (providing goods such as food, fiber, fuel, water, and wood), regulating environmental conditions (by controlling pollution, protecting against natural…

NOAA’s Weather and Climate Toolkit

NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar,…

Climate Impacts Group

The Climate Impacts Group provides a range of technical resources that can be used to help address climate impacts.

Climate Adaptation Science Centers

The CASCs develop data and tools that address the informational needs of natural and cultural resource managers.

Data Snapshots: Reusable Climate Maps

This visual catalog with convenient filtering options can help you find the climate data you need. How-to instructions can help you navigate data access tools.


Science is under siege. Anti-science groups and individuals seek to delegitimize, interfere with, and undermine facts and evidence that threaten their financial interests and ideological beliefs. Aggressive legal action, harassment, and even death threats are…

Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2018

A Look at 2018: Takeaway Points from the State of the Climate Supplement

A snapshot of salient events and trends affecting the global climate, the global oceans, the tropics, the Arctic, Antarctica, and regional climates.

Climate Central

Extreme Weather Videos

World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency

Scientists have a moral obligation to clearly warn humanity of any catastrophic threat and to “tell it like it is.” On the basis of this obligation and the graphical indicators presented below, we declare, with…

Massachusetts raises 2050 waste reduction target, may expand organics ban

A new draft solid waste master plan from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) calls for a 30% reduction in annual disposal by 2030 and a 90% reduction by 2050. An estimated 5.7 million…


The IPCC provides regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and options for adaptation and mitigation. Created in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United…

Following are a series of videos, dating back to 1956, collected by Peter Sinclair.



Can Solar Panels Handle the Heat of a Warming World?

By Christa Roselund   08/26/19  
High temperatures and humidity make solar panels less efficient. What does that mean for solar power as the climate changes?

Move Away From Coastal Areas While You Still Can, Scientists Sound Warning On Climate Change

By Rohit R Nair  Photo by jonathansloane/Getty   08/26/19  
A team of scientists has urged people to retreat from the coastal areas while they still can in order to move out of harm’s way, rather than being forced to move after disasters triggered by…

American Geophysical Union Honors Five Lamont Scientists

Lamont scientists representing a range of research disciplines and career stages are to receive honors from the internationally influential earth and space science organization. ...

Scientists Have Been Underestimating the Pace of Climate Change

By Naomi Oreskes, Michael Oppenheimer, Dale Jamieson  Photo: Getty   08/19/19  
A book entitled Discerning Experts explains why—and what can be done about it.

Tree in Harvard Forest live tweets climate change

Tree in Harvard Forest outfitted with sensors, cameras, and other digital equipment sends out on-the-ground coverage.

Five takeaways from The Post’s analysis of warming climates in the United States

The analysis, based on data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, examines annual temperature data for the Lower 48 U.S. states and more than 3,000 counties....

USDA Scientist Quits, Claims Trump Administration Tried To Bury His Climate Study

Lewis Ziska, a plant physiologist, says officials refused to promote his groundbreaking research on the effects of climate change on rice. ...

I’m a Scientist. Under Trump I Lost My Job for Refusing to Hide Climate Crisis Facts

By Maria Caffrey  Photo by Martin Adams   07/25/19  
I was a climate scientist in a climate-denying administration — and it cost me my job.

Is climate change an “existential threat” — or just a catastrophic one?

By Kelsey Piper   06/28/19  
The debate over whether climate change will end life on Earth, explained.

Columbia Researchers Provide New Evidence on the Reliability of Climate Modeling

Observational data confirms that Hadley cell circulation is weakening, which has important consequences for future rainfall in the subtropics. ...

Emails: Trump official pressed NASA on climate science

By Ellen Knickmeyer And Seth Borenstein  Photo by Brennan Linsley   06/14/19  
Once a skeptic about climate change, Jim Bridenstine came around to the prevailing view of scientists before he took over as NASA administrator. That evolution did not sit well with a Trump environmental adviser, nor…

The White House Plan to Change Climate Science

By Michael Barbaro  Photo: Brandon Thibodeaux for The New York Times   05/29/19  
After two years spent unraveling the policies of his predecessors, President Trump and his appointees are going after influential government reports.

New Studies Increase Confidence in NASA’s Measure of Earth’s Temperature

By Jessica Merzdorf   05/23/19  
A new assessment of NASA's record of global temperatures revealed that the agency's estimate of Earth's long-term temperature rise in recent decades is accurate to within less than a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit, providing…

Atmospheric CO2 breaks a record. Here’s why it matters

By Chelsea Harvey  Photo: Leonello Calvetti/ Science Photo Library/ Newscom   05/16/19  
Another climate milestone soared by last weekend when scientists announced that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels hit 415 parts per million for the first time ever (Climatewire, May 7).

Climatologist Testifies to Senate Subcommittee Regarding Costs of Extreme Weather

Lamont’s Radley Horton explains that enhanced forecasts and better communication can reduce climate risks and create new economic opportunities. ...

Carbon dioxide soars to record-breaking levels not seen in 800,000 years

By Yasemin Saplakoglu | LiveScience  Photo: Shutterstock   05/15/19  
There is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than there has been for 800,000 years — since before our species evolved.

20 Years of Harassing Science

By Peter Sinclair   03/21/19  
With the 20 year anniversary of the publication of the hockey stick graph, time for a review. Above, a history of science denial, from tobacco to climate change, finds that the same characters keep showing…

Countries vowed to cut carbon emissions. They aren’t even close to their goals, U.N. report finds

By Chris Mooney  Photo by Philippe Wojazer/Reuters   02/20/19  
A new ‘emissions gap’ report says we’re even further from where we need to be than we thought.

A pioneer and a warrior in climate science to share 2019 Tyler Prize

Climatologists Warren Washington and Michael Mann will share the 2019 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, it was announced Tuesday.Washington and Mann "have the courage and commitment to inform and advance public discourse and policy on…

Pioneering Black Scientist to Win Nobel Prize of Climate Change

By Marlene Cimons  Photo source: National Center for Atmospheric Research   02/12/19  
Climate scientist Warren Washington will be awarded the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement.

The Most Important Story of 2018

By David Leonhardt   01/24/19  
It’s not the obvious one. It’s the one that will affect our grandkids.

Greenhouse Gasses: Causes, Sources and Environmental Effects

By Marc Lallanilla   01/03/19  
Behind the struggle to address global warming and climate change lies the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere.

Citizens’ Climate Radio Ep. 31: Dr. Katharine Hayhoe and Dr. Jeffrey Bennett

Citizens’ Climate Radio Ep. 31: Dr. Katharine Hayhoe and Dr. Jeffrey Bennett Citizens’ Climate Radio is a monthly podcast hosted by CCL volunteer Peterson Toscano. Browse all our past episode recaps here, or listen to…

There’s a massive ecosystem twice the size of the world’s oceans beneath our feet

By Christian Cotroneo  Photo by Hiroyuki Imachi   12/10/18  
There's a vast and untouched ecosystem bristling with lifeforms that have never seen the light of day. It's bigger than all of the Earth's oceans. And it's beneath our very feet.

‘We are in trouble.’ Global carbon emissions reached a record high in 2018

By Brady Dennis and Chris Mooney   12/05/18  
As nations assemble in Poland for climate talks, the figures suggest there is no clear end in sight to the growth of humanity’s contribution to climate change.

Five Myths About Climate Change

By Katharine Hayhoe  Photo by Astrid Riecken/Getty Images   12/04/18  
The Fourth National Climate Assessment — the work of 13 federal agencies and more than 350 scientists, including me — is clear: The Earth is warming faster than at any time in human history, and…

We’re studying collapsed civilizations so that ours can endure climate change

By Brittany Ward   12/03/18  
Paleoclimatologists are digging into the connections between the collapse of Maya Civilization and extreme droughts

Stunning Maps Show How We’ve Changed The Face of Earth Over The Last 25 Years

By David Nield   11/22/18  
Our planet is constantly changing each and every day, and now thanks to researchers at the University of Cincinnati, we can see some of those shifts mapped over the course of a quarter of a…

The House Science Committee may soon become… pro-science

“Hopefully we will no longer see the science committee used as a messaging tool for the fossil fuel industry,” says Rep. Bill Foster, a science committee member....

Human vs. Natural Contributions to Global Warming

The percentage contribution to global warming over the past 50-65 years is shown in two categories, human causes (left) and natural causes (right), from various peer-reviewed studies (colors).

Climate change: Five cheap ways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere

By Matt McGrath  Photo by Getty Images   10/25/18  
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others have all stated that extracting CO2 from the air will be needed if we are to bend the rising temperature curve before the end of this century.

Climate change and the 75% problem

By Bill Gates   10/17/18  
The five areas where we need innovation.

Your Basic Questions About Climate Change, Answered

By Beth Skwarecki  Photo by Getty Images   10/09/18  
The world is warming. There’s no longer any doubt of that. With a new report breaking down exactly how fucked we are, it’s time to back up and talk about the basics of the situation…

Your Basic Questions About Climate Change, Answered

By Beth Skwarecki  Photo by Chip Somodevilla   10/09/18  
The world is warming. There’s no longer any doubt of that. With a new report breaking down exactly how fucked we are, it’s time to back up and talk about the basics of the situation…

Major Climate Report Describes a Strong Risk of Crisis as Early as 2040

By Coral Davenport   10/07/18  
A landmark report from the United Nations’ scientific panel on climate change paints a far more dire picture of the immediate consequences of climate change than previously thought and says that avoiding the damage requires…

Climate change could render many of Earth’s ecosystems unrecognizable

By Sarah Kaplan   08/30/18  
After the end of the last ice age — when sea levels rose, glaciers receded and global average temperatures soared as much as seven degrees Celsius — the Earth’s ecosystems were utterly transformed. Forests evolved…

Climate Change Could Drastically Change Ecosystems Around the World

By Yasemin Saplakoglu   08/30/18  
For a preview of what's to come for the Earth's ecosystems, look to the past. In a new study, an international group of researchers analyzed fossil records to track how the planet’s vegetation changed as…

Words of Warning: The Top 10 ‘Nation’ Articles on Climate Change

By The Nation   08/29/18  
Writers like Bill McKibben, Naomi Klein, Mark Hertsgaard, James Hansen, and Chris Hayes have produced some of the most farsighted reporting and analysis of the climate crisis to appear anywhere. They remind us that solutions…

Rising temperatures are causing soil to breathe out more carbon dioxide into the air

By Marlene Cimons   08/13/18  
Nature is breathing. Trees inhale carbon dioxide and store that carbon in their leaves and branches. After they die, microbes in the soil gobble up their carbon-rich leftovers and exhale carbon dioxide back into the…

Domino-effect of climate events could move Earth into a ‘hothouse’ state

By Jonathan Watts   08/07/18  
A domino-like cascade of melting ice, warming seas, shifting currents and dying forests could tilt the Earth into a “hothouse” state beyond which human efforts to reduce emissions will be increasingly futile, a group of…

Scientists Have Uncovered a Disturbing Climate Change Precedent

By Peter Brannen   08/06/18  
During the rise of mammals, Earth's temperatures spiked in a scary way that the planet may experience again soon.

6 Unexpected Effects of Climate Change

By Laura Poppick   08/05/18  
Along with its anxiety-inducing effects, climate change also offers an interesting opportunity to consider fascinating, interconnected processes on Earth. The smallest to the largest components of the planet – from bacteria to volcanoes – all…

Losing Earth: The Decade We Almost Stopped Climate Change

By Nathaniel Rich   08/01/18  
This narrative is a work of history, addressing the 10-year period from 1979 to 1989: the decisive decade when humankind first came to a broad understanding of the causes and dangers of climate change. With…

Ex-Nasa scientist: 30 years on, world is failing ‘miserably’ to address climate change

By James Hansen  Photo by Ali Smith for the Guardian   06/19/18  
James Hansen, who gave a climate warning in 1988 Senate testimony, says real hoax is by leaders claiming to take action.

A Special Report on Climate Science

The U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP) Climate Science Special Report (CSSR), which serves as Volume I of the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), describes current trends in the climate globally and for the United…

Earth likely to warm more than 2 degrees this century

Warming of the planet by 2 degrees Celsius is often seen as a "tipping point" that people should try to avoid by limiting greenhouse gas emissions.But the Earth is very likely to exceed that change,…

We Are The Asteroid

By YaleClimateConnections   08/04/15  
Leading Scientists compare current Human pressure on the planet's life support systems to great Extinction events of the past.