Before you do anything else, the EPA presents, very effectively, the issues here



Melting glaciers and ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica have a direct and profound impact on sea-level rise.

Greenland’s ice sheet is losing mass about six times faster than it was a few decades ago. In the past fifty years, the sheet has already shed enough to add about half an inch of water to the world’s oceans. In just this last summer’s heat wave, meltwater — equivalent to over 4 million swimming pools — sloughed into the ocean in a single day.

Antarctica, that frigid expanse of land at the Earth’s Southern pole, is covered by 90% of the planet’s ice. If all of its ice were to melt, sea levels would rise by 190 feet. It is melting at an alarming rate, with the rate of thaw tripling over the past decade and losing 2.71 trillion tons of ice between 1992 and 2017 with half of these losses occurring in the past five years, shrinking to record low levels

Melting ice is not limited to the poles and is happening around the world: Alaska’s sea ice has all melted; the glaciers of the Himalayas are melting twice as fast as they were in 2000; the Patagonian icefields are a fraction of their previous size. Iceland marked its first loss of a glacier to climate change with a funeral, and the Swiss followed suit with a funeral for the Pizol glacier in the Alps. 

And, then there is our own ice melt.

Diana Six, an entomologist at the U. of Montana, recently returned from a trip to Montana’s Glacial National Park, where the 97/98˚heat had decimated the ice. In despair, she said, “I don’t think people realize that climate change is not just a loss of ice. It’s all the stuff that’s dependent on it. The water is too warm for the fish. At some of the lower elevations, glacier lilies were shriveled, lupins didn’t even open. The flowers should extend for another three weeks but they’re already gone. Any insects or birds that depend upon them, like bees or hummingbirds are in trouble, their food is gone. Bird populations have just baked. There have been total losses of a lot of baby birds this year. You see these ospreys and eagles sitting on top of the trees in their nests and those young, they just can’t take the heat.”




Ice Sheets

The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are losing significant amounts of land-based ice as a result of human-caused global warming. Data from NASA's GRACE and GRACE Follow-On satellites show that the land ice sheets in…

Five Facts to Help You Understand Sea Ice

One way that scientists monitor climate change is through the measure of sea ice extent. Sea ice extent is the area of ice that covers the Arctic Ocean at a given time. Sea ice plays…

Climate Change Indicators: Snow and Ice

The Earth’s surface contains many forms of snow and ice, including sea, lake, and river ice; snow cover; glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets; and frozen ground. Climate change can dramatically alter the Earth’s snow-…

New Study Identifies Mountain Snowpack Most “At-Risk” from Climate Change

CPO-funded scientists theorize why snowpack in coastal regions, the Arctic, and the Western U.S. may be among the most at-risk for premature melt from rising temperatures

Polar Tales: The Future of Ice, Life, and the Arctic (2020)

The Arctic is the ground zero of climate change, and the polar bear is on the front line. Filled with groundbreaking photography that reveals the breathtaking landscapes of the Arctic and the transformations of the…

Antarctica: The Waking Giant (2020)

Winner of three 2020 International Photography Awards and named Photographer of the Year from the Tokyo International Awards, explorer Sebastian Copeland's stunning photography delivers unparalleled access to the least explored continent on Earth and galvanizes…

Rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will exceed Holocene values this century

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is losing mass at a high rate1. Given the short-term nature of the observational record, it is difficult to assess the historical importance of this mass-loss trend.

Widespread Biological Response to Rapid Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula

First Peninsula-wide assessment of biological sensitivity to recent warming.

The Ice at the End of the World (2019)

A riveting, urgent account of the explorers and scientists racing to understand the rapidly melting ice sheet in Greenland, a dramatic harbinger of climate change.

Operation IceBridge mission

NASA’s Operation IceBridge images Earth's polar ice in unprecedented detail to better understand processes that connect the polar regions with the global climate system.


On the Great Lakes, scientists are making a ‘Winter Grab’ of rare data

By Susan Cosier  Photo: Susan Cosier   02/18/22  
On a brutally cold day here earlier this week, Kirill Shchapov stood 200 meters off the shore of Lake Michigan, using a green auger to drill into a glistening ice sheet that stretched to the…

Winter Olympic Sites Are Melting Away because of Climate Crisis

By Andrea Thompson  Photo: Topical Press   02/16/22  
The number of places on Earth with the right combination of natural climate and geography for the Olympic Winter Games is already inherently limited. But as global temperatures rise from the burning of fossil fuels,…

Mountain glaciers may have less ice than estimated, straining freshwater supply

By Kasha Patel and Ellen Francis  Photo: Pablo Cozagglio , Getty Images   02/07/22  
Warm conditions in January, including a scorching heat wave with temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit in some locations, melted almost all snow cover on some of Chile’s Olivares Glaciers and Volcan Overo in Argentina. With…

An Extraordinary Iceberg Is Gone, but Not Forgotten

By Henry Fountain  Photo: Corporal Phil Dye via Associated Press   01/26/22  
Perhaps you remember iceberg A68a, which enjoyed a few minutes of fame back in 2017 when it broke off an ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula. Hardly your everyday iceberg, it was one of the…

Shifting Snow in the Warming U.S.

Winter is the fastest warming season for most of the U.S. Warmer air holds more moisture, which can fall as snow when temperatures are below freezing. Between 1970-2019, snowfall decreased in the spring and fall…

There Was Way Too Much Lightning in the Arctic Last Year

By Brian Kahn  Photo: Mladen Antonov , Getty Images   01/05/22  
That the Arctic is a hot mess due to climate change is well-established at this point. But it’s always nice to have a reminder of just how out of whack things are getting, isn’t it?

Climate change has destabilized the Earth’s poles, putting the rest of the planet in peril

By Sarah Kaplan  Photo: Nasa   12/14/21  
The ice shelf was cracking up. Surveys showed warm ocean water eroding its underbelly. Satellite imagery revealed long, parallel fissures in the frozen expanse, like scratches from some clawed monster. One fracture grew so big,…

Rising From the Antarctic, a Climate Alarm

By Henry Fountain and Jeremy White   12/13/21  
The immense and forbidding Southern Ocean is famous for howling gales and devilish swells that have tested mariners for centuries. But its true strength lies beneath the waves.

Ice shelf holding back keystone Antarctic glacier within years of failure

By Paul Voosen   12/13/21  
An alarming crackup has begun at the foot of Antarctica’s vulnerable Thwaites Glacier, whose meltwater is already responsible for about 4% of global sea level rise. An ice sheet the size of Florida, Thwaites ends…

Greenland ice sheet experiences record loss to calving of glaciers and ocean melt over the past year

By Kasha Patel  Photo: Josh Willis , Nasa   11/23/21  
Greenland has had a quite a year. For the first time in its history, rain fell at its summit. In August, it experienced one of the latest-occurring melt events in recent memory. This also became…

Icy ‘Glue’ May Control Pace of Antarctic Ice-Shelf Breakup

By Carol Rasmussen  Photo: NASA/GSFC/OIB   10/12/21  
Researchers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California and the University of California, Irvine, have discovered an ice process that may have caused a Delaware-size iceberg to break off Antarctica’s immense Larsen C ice…

NASA satellites show how clouds respond to Arctic sea ice change

By Roberto Molar Candanosa, NASA  Photo: NASA/Jeremy Harbeck   09/23/21  
Clouds are one of the biggest wildcards in predictions of how much and how fast the Arctic will continue to warm in the future. Depending on the time of the year and the changing environment…

Scientists scramble to harvest ice cores as glaciers melt

By Cassandra Garrison, Clare Baldwin and Marco Hernandez  Photo: Enrico Costa , Reuters   09/14/21  
Scientists are racing to collect ice cores – along with long-frozen records they hold of climate cycles – as global warming melts glaciers and ice sheets. Some say they are running out of time. And,…

Ghostly Satellite Image Captures the Arctic ‘Losing Its Soul’

By Gemma Tarlach  Photo : Joe Raedle , Getty Images   08/27/21  
“We started hearing a noise, like breaking, or coins falling,” says Marco Tedesco, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. He makes a loud, sustained crunching sound, recreating what he and his team heard,…

Mount Shasta barely has any snow this year. Will it ever come back?

By Kurtis Alexander   08/25/21  
But this summer, the north state’s tallest peak is looking a little frail. Its slopes are drab and dusty, and most of the snow has melted away. Locals say they haven’t seen the mountain so…

The amount of Greenland ice that melted on Tuesday could cover Florida in 2 inches of water

By Rachel Ramirez   07/30/21  
Greenland is experiencing its most significant melting event of the year as temperatures in the Arctic surge. The amount of ice that melted on Tuesday alone would be enough to cover the entire state of…

Top US scientist on melting glaciers: ‘I’ve gone from being an ecologist to a coroner’

By Jyoti Madhusoodanan  Photo: Kent Meireis   07/21/21  
Diana Six’s love of the outdoors began before she could form words, run, or collect the bugs and fungi that were precious to her as a child. A tough home life eventually led her to…

Greenland suspends oil exploration because of climate change

Photo: John McConnico , AP   07/16/21  
 The left-leaning government of Greenland has decided to suspend all oil exploration off the world’s largest island, calling it is “a natural step” because the Arctic government “takes the climate crisis seriously.”

Thawing Permafrost has Damaged the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Poses an Ongoing Threat

By David Hasemyer  Photo: Edwin Remsburg , Getty Images   07/11/21  
Thawing permafrost threatens to undermine the supports holding up an elevated section of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, jeopardizing the structural integrity of one of the world’s largest oil pipelines and raising the potential of an oil…

Opinion: The Arctic’s ice is thinning faster than expected. It’s an ominous sign.

By Editorial Board  Photo by Brian Battaile/AP   06/06/21  
Polar Bears struggling on thin Arctic ice is perhaps the most iconic image associated with climate change. Human-caused global warming is extreme near the poles, where the temperature is rising much faster than elsewhere. The…

Melting of Greenland ice may accelerate as glaciers get shorter – study

By Tom Balmforth   05/18/21  
As the central-western Greenland ice sheet melts, it is also shrinking in height, with its surface exposed to warmer temperatures at lower altitudes that contributes further to melting, according to research published here on Monday…

Melting ice in Antarctica could trigger chain reactions, bringing monsoon rains to the ice cap, study says

By Allison Chinchar  Photo: Mario Tama/Getty Images   05/17/21  
The study, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, found that as Earth continues to heat up, the land underneath the Antarctic ice sheet will become more exposed. As a result of that process, wind patterns…

Dry Soils And Drought Mean Even Normal Snowpack Can’t Keep Up With Climate Change In The West

By Michael Elizabeth Sakas  Photo: Michael Elizabeth Sakas/CPR News   05/17/21  
Domonkos, the Colorado Snow Survey supervisor, gets to work measuring how much snowpack is left from the winter to runoff into streams, rivers and reservoirs this summer. These mountains trap snow in a natural reservoir.…

Antarctica’s Doomsday Glacier: How Doomed Are We?

By Jeff Goodell   05/12/21  
Two new papers offer radically different predictions of the glacier’s future — and thus for the future of low-lying cities around the world. Here’s how to understand the divergent projections

Receding glaciers causing rivers to suddenly disappear

By Jenna Kunze  Photo: Nasa Earth Observatory   05/03/21  
As glaciers around the world recede rapidly owing to global warming, some communities are facing a new problem: the sudden disappearance of their rivers. River piracy, or stream capture, is when water from one river…

Melting ice: What’s the big deal?

By Stuart Braun   04/30/21  
The melting of the polar ice caps has often been portrayed as a tsunami-inducing Armageddon in popular culture. In the 2004 disaster movie The Day After Tomorrow, the warming Gulf Stream and North Atlantic currents…

Antarctic ice-sheet melting to lift sea level higher than thought, study says

By Harvard University  Photo: Michael Weber   04/30/21  
Global sea level rise associated with the possible collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been significantly underestimated in previous studies, meaning sea level in a warming world will be greater than anticipated, according…

Glacier Is Surging Down Denali Mountain in Alaska

By Chelsea Harvey  Photo: Getty Images   04/12/21  
Muldrow Glacier, perched on the side of Alaska’s highest peak, is on the move for the first time in more than 60 years. Scientists noticed last month that the 39-mile stretch of ice had begun…

Guest post: The fate of Antarctic ice shelves at 1.5C, 2C and 4C of warming

By Dr. Ella Gilbert   04/08/21  
Antarctica’s ice shelves – the floating tongues of ice formed where the ice sheet meets the ocean – are especially useful indicators of a warming climate. Sandwiched between the atmosphere and ocean, they can be melted from above or below.

Hunting Ghost Particles Beneath the World’s Deepest Lake

By Anton Troianovski  Photo: Sergey Ponomarev , The New York Times   03/30/21  
 A glass orb, the size of a beach ball, plops into a hole in the ice and descends on a metal cable toward the bottom of the world’s deepest lake.

New Study Identifies Mountain Snowpack Most “At-Risk” from Climate Change

Photo by Carol M. Highsmith.   03/01/21  
As the planet warms, scientists expect that mountain snowpack should melt progressively earlier in the year. However, observations in the U.S. show that as temperatures have risen, snowpack melt is relatively unaffected in some regions…

Arctic ice loss forces polar bears to use four times as much energy to survive – study

By Phoebe Weston  Photo: Paulette Sinclair   02/24/21  
Polar bears and narwhals are using up to four times as much energy to survive because of major ice loss in the Arctic, according to scientists. Once perfectly evolved for polar life, apex predators are…

A lopsided January

Arctic sea ice extent for January 2021 tracked below average, with the monthly average finishing sixth lowest in the satellite record. While air temperatures were well above average on the Atlantic side of the Arctic,…

Arctic warming and diminishing sea ice are influencing the atmosphere

Researchers have resolved for the first time, how the environment affects the formation of nanoparticles in the Arctic. The results give additional insight into the future of melting sea ice and the Arctic atmosphere. Until…

Global ice loss is catching up to worst-case scenario predictions

By Sophie Hirsh   01/29/21  
Melting ice sheets is one of the most cliché signifiers of global warming and the climate crisis — but clichés originate in the truth, after all, and ice sheets are still melting. In fact, new…

Earth is now losing 1.2 trillion tons of ice each year. And it’s going to get worse.

By Chris Mooney and Andrew Freedman   01/25/21  
Global ice loss has increased rapidly over the past two decades, and scientists are still underestimating just how much sea levels could rise, according to alarming new research published this month.

Southern Ocean waters are warming faster than thought, threatening Antarctic ice

By Andrew Freedman  Photo by Andrea Sachs   01/22/21  
The Southern Ocean is one of the most important yet least explored and understood regions of the planet when it comes to determining how global warming may affect the future of humanity, thanks to its…

The state of the climate in 2021

By Isabelle Gerretsen  Photo: Getty Images   01/10/21  
After the turbulent year of 2020, BBC Future takes stock on the state of the climate at the beginning of 2021.

The Long Decline of Arctic Sea Ice

Throughout 2020, the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas endured several notable weather and climate events. In spring, a persistent heatwave over Siberia provoked the rapid melting of sea ice in the East Siberian and Laptev…

Ho, ho, ho-hum December

The Arctic climate was extraordinary in 2020, but the year ended with a less spectacular December. Ice growth was faster than average throughout the month, but extent at month’s end remained among the lowest in…

NASA Finds What a Glacier’s Slope Reveals About Greenland Ice Sheet Thinning

By Lara Streiff   12/21/20  
As glaciers flow outward from the Greenland Ice Sheet, what lies beneath them offers clues to their role in future ice thinning and sea-level rise contribution.

The Big Thaw

By Daniel Glick   12/16/20  
So far, the results have been positively chilling. When President Taft created Glacier National Park in 1910, it was home to an estimated 150 glaciers. Since then the number has decreased to fewer than 30,…

Shift to a Not-So-Frozen North Is Well Underway, Scientists Warn

By Henry Fountain   12/08/20  
“There is no reason to think that in 30 years much of anything will be as it is today,” one of the editors of a new report on the Arctic climate said.

Sailing to the Antarctic Peninsula

By Peter Sinclair   11/25/20  
An iceberg roughly the size of Delaware that is headed toward the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia has experts worried about the possibility of it blocking wildlife from food sources and threatening the island’s ecosystem.

Greenland’s ice sheet could melt at a rate not seen in the last 130,000 years

By Jonathan Bamber   11/20/20  
Greenland is the largest island in the world and on it rests the largest ice mass in the Northern Hemisphere. If all that ice melted, the sea would rise by more than 7 metres.

Why are glaciers and sea ice melting?

By Lorin Hancock  Photo: Wim Van Passel   11/10/20  
Glaciers around the world can range from ice that is several hundred to several thousand years old and provide a scientific record of how climate has changed over time. Through their study, we gain valuable information…

Greenland’s Retreating Glaciers Could Impact Local Ecology

A new study of Greenland's shrinking ice sheet reveals that many of the island's glaciers are not only retreating, but are also undergoing other physical changes. Some of those changes are causing the rerouting of…

Alarm as Arctic sea ice not yet freezing at latest date on record

By Jonathan Watts  Photo: Alamy Stock Photo   10/26/20  
Delayed freeze in Laptev Sea could have knock-on effects across polar region, scientists say

10 million snowblowers? Last-ditch ideas to save the Arctic ice

By Nils Adler   10/20/20  
Some of the solutions sound fantastical – but their proponents argue that there are precious few other options

Big oil’s answer to melting Arctic: cooling the ground so it can keep drilling

By Nat Herz   10/19/20  
“It’s like God’s country,” said George Ahmaogak Sr, a former mayor of the North Slope borough, who has built three subsistence fishing cabins not far from the lake. “I’ve lived there, I’ve seen it and…