Already in 2008, Maryland commissioned a report which projected future climate change vulnerabilities for the state: an annual average temperature increase of about 3°F by mid-century; droughts lasting several weeks during the summer; rains and winds from hurricanes are likely to increase as will precipitation; sea level rise will accelerate causing Maryland to experience considerable shoreline erosion and deterioration of coastal wetlands. If sea level rises by 3 feet, most tidal wetlands would be lost — about 200 square miles of land would be inundated.

Despite being home to the second-largest coal exporting port in the United States, Maryland is among the leaders in a shift away from traditional energy sources. Maryland has no crude oil production and very little natural gas production. Further, the state is gradually transitioning away from coal. Since 2012, coal’s share in electricity generation has been less than 50% and in 2018 it fell to 23%. Alternative renewable energy sources such as solar and clean energy nuclear have been turned to in recent years, with one of Maryland’s nuclear power plants accounting for 34 of the state’s electricity generation in 2018.

According to the Environmental Information Administration (EIA), Maryland consumes five times more energy than it produces and the Maryland economy ranks among the ten least energy intensive states in the U.S., as well as being among the ten lowest in per capita energy consumption. The state’s energy is consumed primarily by the transportation, commercial and residential sectors with each consuming about 30% and the industrial sector accounting for the remaining 10%.

In 2009, Maryland passed the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act of 2009 (GGRA). Since its passage, the bill has been updated (in 2015 and 2019), with each amendment proposing greater energy conservation targets. As of 2019, the goals of the GGRA include a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a transition to 100% clean electricity by 2040. The realization of Maryland’s proposed goals relies on a synthesis of a number of new and existing public programs and regulations introduced to the state’s private sector.

A member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a cooperative of ten states in the Atlantic region with the goal of reducing GHG emissions, Maryland is able to regulate its energy use under the first cap-and-invest program in the nation. This program sets in place a cap on the GHG emissions allowed among the ten-state initiative and allows the private sector to trade for allowances under this cap.

State Governor Larry Hogan (R) has sought out ambitious climate change legislation and has championed Maryland as a leader in the field. In a November of 2019 tweet, Hogan broke from party lines, deriding the Trump Administration’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, asserting that “While Washington continues to address climate change, Maryland continues to lead.”

The Climate Solutions Act of 2021 aimed to reduce statewide greenhouse gas emissions by 60% from 2006 levels by 2030 and to require the State to achieve net-zero statewide greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. Unfortunately, although the Senate passed the bill in the Spring of 2021, it lost in the House. Sponsor Paul G. Pinsky (D) said he hopes for a bigger effort next year.

Maryland is one of seven states in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast to have record sweltering heat in July, 2020. Records date back to 1895. In 2021, they had their first heat related death on June 16 and hit a record 98 degrees on June 30.

Maryland is one of twenty four states, plus Puerto Rico, committed to the U.S. Climate Alliance, a bipartisan coalition of governors committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement.



County Executive Elrich Releases Recommended FY 23 Capital Budget and Recommended FY23-28 Capital Improvement Program

Today, Montgomery County Executive Marc Elrich transmitted his $5.05 billion Recommended FY 23 Capital Budget and FY23-28 Capital Improvement Program (CIP) to the Montgomery County Council. The County Executive’s funding recommendations will address major capital…

Mayor and Sustainability Office Release Carbon-Neutral Goals for Baltimore City

Today, Mayor Brandon M. Scott and Director of the Office of Sustainability, Lisa McNeilly, announced an updated set of goals for Baltimore City’s Climate Action Plan. At the direction of Mayor Scott, the City has…

Frederick County Council To Vote On Climate Change Initiatives

Frederick, Md (KM) A vote is expected on Tuesday by the Frederick County Council on several climate change initiatives . The total cost of the package is $3.7-million which is one-time funds.

Legislators plan green-focused bills this session

The weekend before convening in Annapolis, a collection of Maryland lawmakers unveiled and explained the environmentally directed bills they plan on introducing during this year’s legislative session.

Ørsted approved for second larger Md. wind farm

Last week, the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) signed off on Skipjack Wind 2, a proposal that would include 846 megawatts of energy via large offshore wind turbines. The Danish multinational green energy company is…

Maryland Department of Transportation Makes Plans for Total Electric Bus Fleet

Following Maryland’s Zero-Emission Bus Transition Act as well as the growing need to stay on top of technology and replace its aging fleet, the Maryland Department of Transportation and the Maryland Transit Administration (MDOT MTA)…

Maryland Commission Awards ORECs to US Wind and Skipjack Offshore Energy

Maryland’s offshore wind portfolio is poised to grow substantially with a decision by the Maryland Public Service Commission to award offshore wind renewable energy credits (ORECs) to two developers that have proposed more than 1,600…

Town of Indian Head Government commits to 100% Renewable Energy

At a town meeting on October 4, 2021, the Town Council of Indian Head issued a proclamation of commitment to transitioning the town government to renewable energy

Officials begin work on community choice energy, a piece of Climate Action Plan

As Montgomery County works on a Climate Action Plan, state legislation passed this year has already started the process for one component: community choice energy. Community choice energy is a program that will allow counties…

Maryland regulators unanimously expand community solar pilot

Regulators in Maryland have unanimously voted to expand the capacity of the state’s community solar program as well as improve access for low- and moderate-income (LMI) customer participation in the state’s Community Solar Pilot Program.

Betting the Farm on Solar Energy

As state and local governments struggle to meet clean energy mandates, they recognize that agricultural land is often a great place to site large renewable energy projects. But placing large solar arrays and other renewable…

US Wind plans up to 1.2 GW expansion off Maryland coast, moves to boost domestic supply chain

Offshore wind developer US Wind has submitted a bid for a new 1,200 MW offshore wind farm, slated for construction adjacent to the company's $77 million MarWin project, which is already set for construction off…

Gov. Larry Hogan announces clean energy expansions in Maryland

Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan made strides towards expanding clean energy in the state on Tuesday. Hogan announced a new partnership between Tradepoint Atlantic and US Wind to expand offshore wind use (electrical power created using…

In Md. Coal Country, a Push for Clean Energy — and a College Campus Leads the Way

Greg Barnett, a senior at Frostburg State University, grew up in Charles County and spent a lot of time visiting his grandfather in Washington, D.C., so Western Maryland is a different world for him. But…

Maryland Receives Funding to Develop Wood Energy Projects

he Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Maryland Forest Service has been awarded nearly $250,000 for a Wood Innovations Grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to develop priority projects with the Maryland Wood…

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard and Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems

Altering the renewable energy portfolio standard in certain years to require a certain percentage of energy from Tier 1 renewable sources each year to be derived from certain geothermal heating and cooling systems

House-Senate Divisions Killed Climate Bill But It Should Have a Second Life in 2022

By Elizabeth Shwe 04/20/21
During a legislative session dominated by coronavirus relief and confronting systemic inequities, General Assembly Democrats splintered over major climate change legislation, which eventually led to its collapse on the night of Sine Die.

Maryland Senate passes climate act by wide margin

The Maryland Senate voted Friday to ramp up Maryland’s efforts to fight climate change over the next decade, passing a sweeping bill that calls for a massive tree planting campaign along with more electric vehicles,…

Maryland releases long-awaited climate plan

 Maryland releases a climate action plan to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2045,14 months later than directed by the legislature.

Department of the Environment Releases a Climate Action Plan — 14 Months After Deadline

The Maryland Department of the Environment released a 279-page report Friday outlining the state’s plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and achieve net-zero emissions by 2045.

Montgomery County Joins Leaders Across Maryland and the United States in Affirming Commitment to Global Climate Action on Fifth Anniversary of Paris Agreement

Montgomery County has joined counties and cities across Maryland and the United States to mark the five-year anniversary of the world coming together to sign on to the Paris Climate Agreement. To celebrate the anniversary…

County Executive Marc Elrich To Transform Portion Of Former Landfill Into Solar Energy Project

Montgomery County moves another step closer toward meeting the ambitious goal of eliminating greenhouse emissions by 2035 with an innovative partnership that will provide reliable clean energy for low-to-moderate income households and County Government. Ameresco,…

Preparing for Climate Change in Maryland

This page provides an overview of the steps Maryland is taking to prepare for the impacts of climate change.

Baltimore Climate Action Plan

The City of Baltimore is committed to taking action to mitigate global climate change. Baltimore’s greenhouse gas emissions for our baseline year 2010 were 7,579,144 metric tons (MT) CO2e/yr and will rise to 7,838,996 MT…

Maryland State 2015 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Plan Update

“We are on track to meet our own climate change goal and requirements. We have even greater opportunities ahead of us. Maryland and its citizens and communities can reduce environmental and economic risks, increase energy…


Maryland Solar Panels: Pricing and Incentives

Like much of the nation, Maryland is fairly new to solar power. Luckily, like many other states, it’s making up for lost time. Maryland now produces 1,342.4 MW of solar power each year, making up…

Maryland State Profile and Energy Estimates

Maryland wraps around the Chesapeake Bay and extends west into the Appalachian region, where the state's only fossil fuel reserves—coal and natural gas—are found. Baltimore, the state's largest city and one of the 20 largest…

Energy State Bill Tracking Database

The searchable Energy Storage Legislation Database displays information in interactive maps and charts, tracking state activity from 2017 to the present.

Environment and Natural Resources State Bill Tracking Database

The National Conference of State Legislatures tracks environment and natural resources bills that have been introduced in the 50 states, territories and Washington, D.C.

Empower Maryland

The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) strongly supports energy efficiency and conservation programs developed pursuant to the EmPOWER Maryland Energy Efficiency Act (codified at Md. Code Ann., Public Utilities § 7-211). In enacting the EmPOWER Maryland…

The First National Flood Risk Assessment

The First Street Foundation Flood Model represents the culmination of decades of research and development made possible by building upon existing knowledge and frameworks regularly referenced in the identification of flood risk.

The Impacts of Climate Change and the Trump Administration’s Anti-Environmental Agenda in Maryland

Between 2017 and 2019, Maryland experienced five severe storms, one tropical cyclone, and two winter storms. The damages of each event led to losses of at least $1 billion.

State-by-State: Climate Change in Maryland

Maryland is vulnerable to climate change, presenting risks to people, stressing infrastructure and causing agricultural and ecological impacts. Maryland’s climate has already warmed by one to two degrees Fahrenheit in the last century. Increasing variability…

Maryland and Climate Change

To meet the growing challenges climate change is having on Maryland, the region and the world, UMCES research programs seek to broaden our understanding of climate change’s effects on coastal ecosystems, specifically their sensitivity and…

Climate Change Program

The Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) is leading Governor Hogan's efforts to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to the potential consequences of climate change while creating jobs and benefiting the economy, as required by the…


Opinion: Montgomery County Council declared a ‘climate emergency’ — then sabotaged a solar program

By Kumar P. Barve   03/05/21  
Talk is cheap. Or, in the case of the Montgomery County Council, declaring a “climate emergency” and then sabotaging affordable clean energy.

Md. Delegates Join National Group Dedicated to Holding Polluters Accountable for Climate Change

By Elizabeth Schwe   03/03/21  
Four Maryland lawmakers joined a national network of public officials who support holding corporate polluters accountable for their contributions to the climate crisis.

A Texas-type blackout or water crisis is unlikely in the region. But we’re not in the clear.

By Robert McCartney   03/01/21  
A Texas-scale power blackout or water crisis is unlikely in the Washington region, but neither is impossible given the increasing severity of storms, freezes and other weather events owing to climate change.

Maryland Capital Sues Oil, Gas Companies Over Climate Change

By Amy O' Connor   03/01/21  
Maryland’s capital city has filed a lawsuit against 26 oil and gas companies, saying their industry was taking the environment to a point where fighting climate change would be difficult.

Maryland Bill Would Charge Companies For Carbon Pollution

By Madison Hunt   02/26/21  
Maryland lawmakers would charge fees on fossil fuels and high-emissions vehicles to reduce pollution within the state - and send the first $350 million annually to fund schools - under a bill in the state’s…

Maryland releases long-awaited climate plan

By Bill Opalka   02/22/21  
 Maryland releases a climate action plan to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2045,14 months later than directed by the legislature. (Maryland Matters)

Opinion: How Maryland can become a leader on climate change

By Tony Bridges and John B. King Jr.   02/19/21  
Too often when we hear about climate change, it feels like an enormous crisis that is almost too big to tackle. As the nation confronts a continued national reckoning with systemic racism, a divided democracy…

Maryland educator wins pandemic emergency funding to expand climate change curriculum

By Kellye Lynn   01/15/21  
Sandra Turner has a message for teachers who consider it a challenge to educate students about climate change. "I beg to differ. It really depends on how committed you are to it and how passionate…

Report On Chesapeake Bay Health Remains At a D-Plus Grade

By Brian Witte   01/06/21  
The nation's largest estuary is still getting a D-plus grade for its overall health, according to a report released Tuesday by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. While the grade for the bay's health remained the same,…

Government groups back Baltimore’s high court fight against Big Oil

By Steve Lash   01/06/21  
Groups representing state and local governments are supporting Baltimore in its U.S. Supreme Court fight to ensure the city’s climate change lawsuit against Big Oil is heard in state rather the federal court. In a…

Annual State Of The Bay Released, Graded a D+

By Staff   01/06/21  
This year, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s (CBF) assessment of the State of the Bay remained at a D+, but declined by one point from 2018. While concerning, the decline is largely due to ineffective management…

Report on Chesapeake Bay Health Remains at a D-Plus Grade

By Brian Witte   01/05/21  
The nation's largest estuary is still getting a D-plus grade for its overall health, according to a report released Tuesday by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation.

Chesapeake Bay receives another D+ on health report, due largely to struggling rockfish population

By Christine Condon   01/05/21  
For the second time in a row, the Chesapeake Bay Foundation scored the bay’s health a D+ in its biennial report card released Tuesday. The poor grade for 2020 was “largely due to ineffective management…

Climate change a serious threat to farming

By Sarah Sopher   12/27/20  
My organization, American Farmland Trust, has been working for 40 years to protect farmland from residential and commercial development. Even so, between 2001 and 2016, the time frame of AFT’s most recent analysis, “Farms Under…

Our Say: Climate-driven flooding risks are growing, and Maryland must change to address them

By Capital Gazette Editorial Board   12/27/20  
There is no doubt the climate is changing because of man-made emissions to the atmosphere. The science is clear. What is in doubt is how Anne Arundel County and wider Maryland will react to what…

Maryland must fight climate change – and address the disparities it produces

By Rabbi Alana Suskin   12/24/20  
The recent commentary by state Sen. Paul Pinsky, Mike Tidwell of the Chesapeake Climate Action Network and Staci Hartwell of the NAACP Maryland State Conference, deserves a resounding, “Second!” (”A climate action plan for Maryland’s…

With climate change, Maryland can make a difference

By Karie Firoozmand   12/23/20  
It’s heartening to see Marylanders coming together to urge Gov. Larry Hogan to take action against the increasing havoc resulting from climate change — floods, wildfires, creeping sea-level rise, rising insurance costs — and, indeed,…

Maryland environmental advocates hopeful for renewal of support under Biden

By Rachel Clair   12/22/20  
Maryland lawmakers and interest groups are hopeful that the Biden administration will usher in a positive impact on the environment in the state.

50-year-old Maryland power plant to stop burning coal in 2027

By Christine Condon   12/22/20  
A 50-year-old power plant in Charles County is the latest in Maryland to announce its plans to stop burning coal in the years to come. The coal-fired units at the Morgantown plant, which is run…

Hogan Administration Opts Out of Regional Transportation Climate Initiative For Now

By Bruce DePuyt   12/21/20  
A year ago, Maryland’s Environment Secretary Ben Grumbles pledged that the Hogan administration was committed to “bold and achievable solutions” that help the environment and fight climate change, including joining a nascent coalition of states…

Montgomery County Seeks to Reach Zero Emissions by 2035, But Advocates Say That’s Not Fast Enough

By Elizabeth Shwe   12/20/20  
More than 80% of Montgomery County voters are concerned about global warming and 75% want to see their county council adopt a climate solution plan within the next six months, according to a recent poll…

Montgomery Co.’s climate plan aims to eliminate its greenhouse gas emissions by 2035

By Matthew Delaney   12/19/20  
To help fight climate change, Montgomery County, Maryland has set a goal to reduce the locality’s greenhouse gas emissions completely in the next 15 years.

Md. environmental advocates hopeful for renewal of support under Biden

By Rachel Clair   12/18/20  
Maryland lawmakers and interest groups are hopeful that the Biden administration will usher in a positive impact on the environment in the state. “We look forward to working with the Biden administration on important priorities…

How Do You Get To Zero Emissions in 15 Years? Montgomery County Now Has A Plan

By Jacob Fenston   12/18/20  
How does one Maryland county of 1 million people reverse course on 250 years of dependence on fossil fuels — and do so in just 15 years?This week, Montgomery County officials started charting their course…

Old landfill will soon be replaced with new solar energy site in Gaithersburg

By Shennekia Grimshaw   12/16/20  
An old landfill will soon become a new solar energy site to generate clean energy for low-income households in Montgomery County. Three solar arrays will be built on 16 acres of underutilized land at the…

Maryland Hopeful For Biden’s Environmental Impact

By Rachel Clair   12/16/20  
Maryland lawmakers and interest groups are hopeful that the Biden administration will usher in a positive impact on the environment in the state.“We look forward to working with the Biden administration on important priorities like…

10 Best Energy-Efficiency States – Maryland Ranked #6 in New ACEEE Scorecard Report

More U.S. states have adopted or advanced new energy-saving targets and vehicle and appliance rules, but COVID-19 slowed other efficiency efforts, according to the 2020 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard released Wednesday. For the first time…

Poll suggests majority of voters worry about impacts of climate change in Montgomery County

By Shennekia Grimshaw   12/15/20  
A new poll suggests that more than 80% of voters in Montgomery County say they are concerned about the impacts of climate change. The study was conducted by the Chesapeake Climate Action Network to get…

Coastal farmers in Maryland and across Mid-Atlantic being driven off their land as salt poisons the soil

By Bill Lambrecht and Gracie Todd   12/15/20  
Eric Bedsworth’s day of reckoning arrived a year ago. His soybean field got such a salty soaking from last fall’s tidal waters that he abandoned it mid-harvest. This season, the land sprouts only weeds. Unless…

Maryland is one of the top states to prepare for climate change

By Nordea Lewis   12/15/20  
Many people see climate change as a problem that won’t occur in the near future, however according to research from John Hopkins, Americans are now dealing with record flooding, more intense heat waves, and hurricanes.…

Talen to close coal-fired plants in transition to renewable energy sources

By Dave Kovaleski   12/14/20  
Talen Energy announced that it will eliminate coal use at all its facilities as it transforms its assets and business model toward an Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) focused future.

A climate action plan for Maryland’s legislature

By Paul G. Pinsky   12/14/20  
President-elect Joe Biden has promised to address our most critical long-term challenge: climate change. But the reality is that no matter what the final shape of the U.S. Senate turns out to be, the new…

Maryland, Illinois may pursue legislative MOPR exit, despite new FERC nearing

By Catherine Morehouse   12/11/20  
With a new Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on the horizon, states that opposed the agency’s minimum offer price rule expansion within the PJM Interconnection are grappling with how or whether to continue fighting the rule.

Md. Voters Express Support for Regional Transportation Initiative to Reduce Emissions

By Bruce DePuyt   12/10/20  
A public opinion survey released by backers of a multi-state initiative to reduce vehicle-generated pollution found high levels of support for their proposal. The poll, conducted for the Our Transportation Future coalition, found that 70%…

Three states — Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina — to collaborate on offshore wind projects

By Patricia Sullivan   10/29/20  
The windblown coastal states of Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina will join forces to build offshore power projects and promote the region as a hub for offshore wind energy and industry, the states’ governors announced…

Supreme Court Will Hear Fossil Fuel’s Appeal of Baltimore’s Climate Lawsuit

By Dana Drugmand   10/02/20  
The Supreme Court on Friday agreed to intervene in a climate liability lawsuit brought against 26 fossil fuel companies by Baltimore, which seeks to hold them responsible for the substantial costs of grappling with the…

New Tax on Plastic Bags Starts Thursday in Howard County

By Shelley Orman   09/30/20  
Paper of plastic? This week, expect to pay more at stores in Howard County if your answer is plastic. A new tax on plastic bags starts Thursday. It’s a five cent fee for each one…

Residents, leaders are split on plastic bag fee in Howard County

By Kim Dacey   09/28/20  
Some retailers, like Wegmans, are embracing the law, announcing they are getting rid of plastic bags altogether in favor of a paper bag, with a 5-cent fee that will go to charity. But the Maryland…

Maryland Will Be First State to Ban Foam Food Containers

By Olivia Rosane   09/28/20  
Maryland will become the first state in the nation Thursday to implement a ban on foam takeout containers. The law, which was passed in 2019, prohibits restaurants and other institutions that serve food, such as…

Starting Oct. 1, foam containers for carryout food will be banned throughout Maryland

By Jean Marbella & Christina Tkacik   09/27/20  
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shift much restaurant dining from eat-in to takeout, Maryland next week becomes the first state in the nation to ban the familiar foam containers used to carry home everything… allows county residents to switch to solar — without installing any panels

By Erika Riley   09/27/20  
Solar energy is often deemed expensive, especially with new panels and installation involved. But Neely, as an independent contractor for Common Energy, is offering a much more simple solution that’s guaranteed to be cheaper than…

Maryland’s mandate to address persistent flooding problems begins with this survey

By Phil Davis   09/21/20  
On Race and W. West streets in the Sharp-Leadenhall neighborhood, about a half-mile from the Inner Harbor, Hadley captured footage of cars submerged in water as emergency personnel waded through water that had overtaken the…

Wind farm off Ocean City would fulfill MD energy plan, create jobs

By Susan Olsen   09/04/20  
After several years of lobbying on the part of the Sierra Club/Maryland Chapter as well as countless other environmental and civic groups, the Maryland General Assembly passed the Clean Energy Jobs Act in April last…

When garbage goes green: Baltimore County is converting landfill trash into renewable energy, without burning it

By Wilborn P. Nobles   08/31/20  
Baltimore County will purchase the energy produced by the firm to offset the needs of municipal facilities, said Seth Blumen, the county’s energy and sustainability coordinator. The county anticipates saving $285,000 in the current fiscal…

Attorney General Frosh Joins Lawsuit Challenging Rule Curtailing Environmental Review of Federal Actions

By Attorney General for the State of Maryland   08/30/20  
“The Trump administration wants to shut out and shut up the public while it continues its environmental destruction,” said Attorney General Frosh. “The changes to NEPA would allow dangerous projects to proceed without proper consideration…

How Maryland’s Preference for Burning Trash Galvanized Environmental Activists in Baltimore

By Rachel Fritts   08/24/20  
First, they went after a giant proposed incinerator. Now the activists want an existing one shut down, and the law changed.

Cities With the Highest Flood Risk in Every State

By Andrew Lisa   08/23/20  
Floods accounted for three of the 14 natural disasters that caused at least $1 billion in damage in the United States in 2019. In total, flooding impacted 14 million Americans last year and put another…

Maryland county washing away, residents face hard choices

Not far away in this tiny community on Maryland’s lower Eastern Shore, Chesapeake Bay waves have eaten away at the land Gary McQuitty uses to offer hunting trips. Last year, he had to move a…

Report faults Maryland for failings in Chesapeake Bay pollution

By Hallie Miller   08/19/20  
The Environmental Integrity Project’s assessment, which also points to a retreat by the state of Pennsylvania, said Maryland cut its efforts to mitigate storm water runoff, citing fewer investments by state government and insufficient planning…

Our Say: Hogan has to get Maryland on track to deal with stormwater runoff and climate change | COMMENTARY

When Gov. Larry Hogan opens the Chesapeake Bay Program Executive Council meeting today, he’ll undoubtedly tout some of the success the program has scored on its way toward deadlines looming in 2025.