Before you do anything else, you might want to read a timeline of the most important events in the history of climate change science…




The science clearly linking climate change to human activity has been confirmed repeatedly for over 50 years. To quote from NASA, “Multiple studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals show that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists agree that climate-warming trends over the past century are extremely likely due to human activities.” 

During the same 50 years a fossil-fuel supported misinformation campaign has fought back, misleading the public and affecting the education of children and the legislation desperately needed. The IPCC (the United Nations) and the NCA (the US Federal Government) have issued report after report, often reporting that previous assessments had been too optimistic or that scientists had actually underestimated the pace and severity of the climate problem. 

Most of the leading scientific organizations throughout the world have issued public statements endorsing the position that climate change has been caused by human action.

In November, 2019, on the 40th anniversary of the world’s first climate conference, 11,000 scientists from 153 nations declared, in a Bioscience report, “clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency and that we must change how we live.” The scientists say the urgent changes needed include ending population growth, leaving fossil fuels in the ground, halting forest destruction, and slashing meat eating.

As you explore the different sections in SCIENCE, you will find that climate change has created a web of interconnected relationships that are compounding the consequences we face. 

Setting records for the number of storms and wildfires, the contiguous USA ranked fifth warmest during 2020, according to a report issued by the NCEI, published on January 8, 2021.

Looking for a searchable chronology of climate-change events dating from 1824  to the present? Look no further, thanks to the University of Maine’s Sharon Tisher.


New NASA Mission Tracks Microscopic Organisms in the Ocean and Tiny Particles in the Air to Monitor Climate Change

By Teresa Tomassoni 05/23/24
From more than 400 miles above Earth, NASA is tracking some of the planet’s smallest life forms drifting just beneath the ocean’s surface to monitor how global warming affects ocean health.
Read more

Alarmed by Climate Change, Astronomers Train Their Sights on Earth

By Katrina Miller and Delger Erdenesanaa 05/14/24
On the morning of Jan. 18, 2003, Penny Sackett, then director of the Australian National University’s Mount Stromlo Observatory outside Canberra, received a concerning email from a student at the facility. Bush fires that had…
Read more

What are the most powerful climate actions you can take? The expert view

By Damian Carrington 05/09/24
Many people, faced with the worsening impacts of the climate emergency, want to know what they can do personally to fight global heating. The Guardian asked hundreds of the world’s top climate scientists for their…
Read more

World’s top climate scientists expect global heating to blast past 1.5C target

By Damian Carrington 05/08/24
Exclusive: Planet is headed for at least 2.5C of heating with disastrous results for humanity, poll of hundreds of scientists finds‘Hopeless and broken’: why the world’s top climate scientists are in despairHundreds of the world’s…
Read more

What Happens When NASA Loses Eyes on Earth? We’re About to Find Out.

By Raymond Zhong 05/06/24
Sometime in the next few years — no one knows exactly when — three NASA satellites, each one as heavy as an elephant, will go dark. Already they are drifting, losing height bit by bit.…
Read more

Winter is warming almost everywhere. See how it’s changed in your town.

By Harry Stevens Climate Lab columnist 03/01/24
As another winter nears its close, we bid farewell to the season of merriment, good cheer and inane arguments about global warming. If you think global warming is nonsense, winter offers many cold things to…
Read more

All this climate data is wild

By Kristen Pope 02/26/24
An elephant seal dives deeper than 1,000 meters below Antarctic waters with a tiny tag affixed to its fur, helping scientists collect valuable data about climate change. In Mongolia, pigeons fly around the capital city…
Read more

Just How Many People Will Die From Climate Change?

By David Wallace-Wells 02/22/24
How deadly could climate change be? Last fall, in an idiosyncratic corner of the internet where I happen to spend a lot of time, an argument broke out about how to quantify and characterize the…
Read more

Shorter Cold Streaks

Extended periods of winter cold have year-round benefits. They’re key to growing valuable fruit and nut crops, building snowpack and snow-fed water supplies, sustaining ice cover on the Great Lakes, and keeping mosquito and tick…
Read more

SpaceX launches $948 million NASA satellite designed to shed new light on climate change

By William Harwood 02/08/24
SpaceX launched an environmental research satellite for NASA early Thursday, a nearly $1 billion spacecraft that survived multiple cancellation threats and is now poised to shed new light on climate change and the complex interplay…
Read more

Study Claims Global Temperatures Have Already Exceeded Critical 1.5C Threshold—Here’s Why

By Robert Hart 02/05/24
Global temperatures may have already passed a critical climate threshold and are set to exceed another by the end of the decade, scientists suggested Monday, a finding experts say is a stark warning to take…
Read more

Trump Allies Plan to Gut Climate Research if He Is Reelected

By Scott Waldman and E&E News 02/02/24
Dozens of conservative organizations have banded together to provide Trump a road map — known as Project 2025 — if he prevails in November. It outlines a series of steps that the former president could…
Read more


Climate change resource center

Climate change, coupled with other stressors, is affecting the ability of many landscapes to continue providing the quality and quantity of ecosystem services demanded by the public.

The Fifth National Climate Assessment

The effects of human-caused climate change are already far-reaching and worsening across every region of the United States. Rapidly reducing greenhouse gas emissions can limit future warming and associated increases in many risks. Across the…

World Energy Outlook 2023

The World Energy Outlook 2023 provides in-depth analysis and strategic insights into every aspect of the global energy system. Against a backdrop of geopolitical tensions and fragile energy markets, this year’s report explores how structural…

Carbon Brief’s definitive guide to the entire IPCC sixth assessment cycle

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has now published the synthesis report of its sixth assessment report (AR6). This forms the final part of the sixth assessment cycle, which kicked off in 2015. The…

NOAA, Smithsonian and fed partners seeking suggestions to update key climate literacy guide

NOAA, as part of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), is requesting suggestions on structure, topics, and content to help update a key national climate literacy guide used by educators, policymakers, and scientists across…

Q&A: IPCC wraps up its most in-depth assessment of climate change

The final part of the world’s most comprehensive assessment of climate change – which details the “unequivocal” role of humans, its impacts on “every region” of the world and what must be done to solve…

AR6 Synthesis Report Climate Change 2023

This Synthesis Report (SYR) of the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) summarises the state of knowledge of climate change, its widespread impacts and risks, and climate change mitigation and adaptation, based on the peer-reviewed scientific,…

Berkeley Earth

Berkeley Earth is the only source of reliable, independent, non-governmental, and unbiased scientific data and analysis of the highest quality.

Climate Change 2021The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers

This Summary for Policymakers (SPM) presents key findings of the Working Group I (WGI) contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)1

Climate Time Machine

This visualization shows the annual Arctic sea ice minimum since 1979. At the end of each summer, the sea ice cover reaches its minimum extent, leaving what is called the perennial ice cover. The area…

Earth Observing Dashboard

Global environmental changes observed by NASA, ESA, and JAXA . Here you can browse the Earth Observation datasets and use the interactive features, including maps that compute simple analytics by drawing an area of interest.…

The Science of Climate Change Explained: Facts, Evidence and Proof

The science of climate change is more solid and widely agreed upon than you might think. But the scope of the topic, as well as rampant disinformation, can make it hard to separate fact from…

State of the Global Climate Observing System 2021

As the impacts of a warming climate become more evident, there is an ever-increasing demand for more detailed information on climate change, both to explain and project changes and to help planning and implementing adaptation…

Video: Global Warming from 1880 to 2020

Earth’s global average surface temperature in 2020 tied with 2016 as the warmest year on record, according to an analysis by NASA. Continuing the planet’s long-term warming trend, the year’s globally averaged temperature was 1.84…

Making climate impact science more accessible to the public: ISIpedia launch

Decision-makers on all levels are provided with a new tool to tackle the climate challenge. Data and explanations on global warming impacts – from floods to droughts - are made more accessible to the public…

How Scientists Are Using the International Space Station to Study Earth’s Climate

On Earth, we often look toward the sky, longing to know what resides in the rest of the universe. Meanwhile, 250 miles above our planet, the International Space Station is looking back.

Understanding Climate Change

JPL scientists study Earth’s changing climate, focusing on four broad themes: icy regions; the movement of water between sea, air, and land; greenhouse gas emissions and absorption; and our world’s ecosystems.

Climate at a glance

Look up monthly rankings for 1-12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60-month time periods using this tool from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Less than 2 °C warming by 2100 unlikely

Our model is not a ‘business as usual’ scenario, but rather is based on data which already show the effect of emission mitigation policies. Achieving the goal of less than 1.5 °C warming will require carbon…

Reduced dividends on natural capital?

Natural capital provides the world’s population with a variety of critical services. These include ecosystem services (providing goods such as food, fiber, fuel, water, and wood), regulating environmental conditions (by controlling pollution, protecting against natural…

NOAA’s Weather and Climate Toolkit

NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar,…

Climate Impacts Group

The Climate Impacts Group provides a range of technical resources that can be used to help address climate impacts.

Climate Adaptation Science Centers

The CASCs develop data and tools that address the informational needs of natural and cultural resource managers.

Data Snapshots: Reusable Climate Maps

This visual catalog with convenient filtering options can help you find the climate data you need. How-to instructions can help you navigate data access tools.


Science is under siege. Anti-science groups and individuals seek to delegitimize, interfere with, and undermine facts and evidence that threaten their financial interests and ideological beliefs. Aggressive legal action, harassment, and even death threats are…

Greenhouse Gas Bulletin

The State of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Based on Global Observations through 2018

Climate Central

Extreme Weather Videos

A Look at 2018: Takeaway Points from the State of the Climate Supplement

A snapshot of salient events and trends affecting the global climate, the global oceans, the tropics, the Arctic, Antarctica, and regional climates.

Massachusetts raises 2050 waste reduction target, may expand organics ban

A new draft solid waste master plan from the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) calls for a 30% reduction in annual disposal by 2030 and a 90% reduction by 2050. An estimated 5.7 million…


The IPCC provides regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and options for adaptation and mitigation. Created in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United…

World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency

Scientists have a moral obligation to clearly warn humanity of any catastrophic threat and to “tell it like it is.” On the basis of this obligation and the graphical indicators presented below, we declare, with…

Following are a series of videos, dating back to 1956, collected by Peter Sinclair.




Why the war in Ukraine is bad for climate science

By Rebecca Hersher   01/22/24  
Lack of data about conditions in the Russian Arctic is already hampering climate science, and will cause ever-growing gaps in our understanding of how climate change affects the fastest-warming region of the planet, scientists warn.
Read more

The 1.5-degree climate goal is out of reach. Here’s what to do now.

By The Editorial Board   01/18/24  
For those who like clutching at straws, it’s still technically possible to believe civilization can prevent the Earth’s temperature from rising more than 1.5 degrees Celsius above the average of the preindustrial era — the…
Read more

Conversational AI and equity through assessing GPT-3’s communication with diverse social groups on contentious topics

By Kaiping Chen and others   01/18/24  
Autoregressive language models, which use deep learning to produce human-like texts, have surged in prevalence. Despite advances in these models, concerns arise about their equity across diverse populations. While AI fairness is discussed widely, metrics…
Read more

Yes, it’s cold. Yes, the planet’s still warming.

By Derrick Z. Jackson   01/18/24  
It’s become a familiar pattern by now. Every cold snap that grips the nation brings with it a bunch of hot air from conservative politicians who seize on subzero temperatures and declare global warming a…
Read more

Global heating will pass 1.5C threshold this year, top ex-Nasa scientist says

By Oliver Milman   01/08/24  
The internationally agreed threshold to prevent the Earth from spiraling into a new superheated era will be “passed for all practical purposes” during 2024, the man known as the godfather of climate science has warned.…
Read more

Scientists uncover a surprising phenomenon in the Himalayas that might be slowing the effects of climate change

By Allison Chinchar   12/12/23  
Glaciers in the Himalayas are melting rapidly, but a new report showed an astonishing phenomenon in the world’s tallest mountain range could be helping to slow the effects of the global climate crisis.
Read more

How Much Can Forests Fight Climate Change? A Sensor in Space Has Answers.

By Manuela Andreoni and Leanne Abraham   12/08/23  
Over the last century, governments around the world have drawn boundaries to shield thousands of the world’s most valuable ecosystems from destruction, from the forests of Borneo and the Amazon to the savannas of Africa.…
Read more

We need power to prescribe climate policy, IPCC scientists say

By Arthur Neslen   12/07/23  
Senior climate experts are calling for an overhaul of the structure and powers of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in despair at the slow pace of climate action.
Read more

3 climate impacts the U.S. will see if warming goes beyond 1.5 degrees

By Lauren Sommer   11/29/23  
As world leaders gather at COP28, the annual climate change negotiations held in Dubai this year, one number will be front and center: 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit). That's the amount countries have agreed…
Read more

This is how far behind the world is on controlling planet-warming pollution

By Rebecca Herscher   11/20/23  
The hottest year on record is coming to a close, emissions of planet-warming gases are still rising globally, and the most ambitious climate goal set by world leaders is all but impossible to meet, according…
Read more

Earth passed a feared global warming milestone Friday, at least briefly

By Scott Dance   11/19/23  
The planet marked an ominous milestone Friday: The first day global warmth crossed a threshold, if only briefly, that climate scientists have warned could have calamitous consequences. Preliminary data show global temperatures averaged more than…
Read more

Texas board rejects many science textbooks over climate change messaging

By Erin Douglas and Kevin Vu   11/17/23  
A Republican-controlled Texas State Board of Education on Friday rejected seven of 12 proposed science textbooks for eighth graders that for the first time will require them to include information on climate change.
Read more

Climate change is threatening American lives, White House report says

Climate change is threatening nearly every aspect of the lives of Americans in every part of the U.S., according to a new government report. CBS News national and environmental correspondent Ben Tracy takes a closer…
Read more

Every region of the country is taking climate action. Here’s how.

On Tuesday, the United States government published the Fifth National Climate Assessment — an exhaustive summary of the leading research on climate change and how it affects life in every part of the country. It…
Read more

How does climate change threaten where you live? A region-by-region guide.

Every four years, the federal government is required to gather up the leading research on how climate change is affecting Americans, boil it all down, and then publish a National Climate Assessment. This report, a…
Read more

Climate impacts in the U.S. are ‘far-reaching and worsening,’ federal report finds

By Brady Dennis and Scott Dance   11/14/23  
Climate change has claimed lives and upended livelihoods in every region of the United States, but its severe toll has prompted parts of the country to respond faster and more creatively than ever, according to…
Read more

Five Takeaways From a Sweeping Report on Climate Change in the US

By Zahra Hirji   11/14/23  
A major US government report published today describes how intensifying climate change is disrupting lives and businesses nationwide, even as communities in every state ramp up their response to the crisis. Over some 2,000 pages,…
Read more

No place in the US is safe from the climate crisis, but a new report shows where it’s most severe

By Ella Nilsen   11/14/23  
The effects of a rapidly warming climate are being felt in every corner of the US and will worsen over the next 10 years with continued fossil fuel use, according to a stark new report…
Read more

‘Every bit matters’: Six key takeaways from the latest U.S. climate report

By Hayley Smith and Ian James   11/14/23  
The dire effects of human-caused climate change are worsening and they threaten to bring more extreme heat waves, droughts, floods and wildfires unless urgent actions are taken, scientists warned in a major national report. The…
Read more

The Toll of Climate Disasters Is Rising. But a U.S. Report Has Good News, Too.

By Raymond Zhong   11/14/23  
The food we eat and the roads we drive on. Our health and safety. Our cultural heritage, natural environments and economic flourishing. Nearly every cherished aspect of American life is under growing threat from climate…
Read more

Climate Changes Threatens Every Facet of U.S. Society, Federal Report Warns

By Chelsea Harvey   11/14/23  
A long-awaited federal climate report, released Tuesday, delivers a blunt warning: Rapidly curb planet-warming emissions or face dire consequences to human health, infrastructure and the economy. The fifth installment of the National Climate Assessment presents…
Read more

National Climate Assessment: Flooding and Sea Level Rise

By Rob Moore   11/14/23  
To adapt to the new reality of climate-driven flooding and sea level rise, local governments, states, and the federal government need to embrace two main courses of action. Actions on climate resilience and adaptation are…
Read more

The 5th National Climate Assessment in 15 Maps

By Allison Crimmins   11/13/23  
To help Americans anticipate how changing climate conditions might affect their families, homes, and livelihoods, the United States Global Change Research Program conducts a comprehensive assessment of scientific information on climate risks and responses in…
Read more

You’ve just lived through Earth’s hottest 12 months on record

By Scott Dance   11/09/23  
The Earth just endured its hottest 12 months in the modern era, and probably the hottest in 125,000 years, according to an analysis published Thursday.
Read more

The Godfather of Climate Science Turns Up the Heat

By David Wallace-Wells   11/08/23  
It is, James Hansen says, worse than you think. In a paper published on Thursday and much debated among his colleagues since it was first posted as a preprint last December, Hansen, known as the…
Read more

Nations That Vowed to Halt Warming Are Expanding Fossil Fuels, Report Finds

By Hiroko Tabuchi   11/08/23  
In 2030, if current projections hold, the United States will drill for more oil and gas than at any point in its history. Russia and Saudi Arabia plan to do the same. They’re among the…
Read more

Planned Fossil Fuel Production Vastly Exceeds the World’s Climate Goals, ‘Throwing Humanity’s Future Into Question’

By Nicholas Kusnetz   11/08/23  
Among the 20 top fossil fuel-producing countries, the U.S., Brazil and Saudi Arabia foresee significant increases in domestic oil production, while Russia, India and Indonesia all project substantial increases in coal. The world’s top fossil-fuel…
Read more

Global warning: 2023 will be the hottest year on record

By Ricky Lanusse   11/06/23  
After a cooler start to 2023, four months have seen unprecedented global temperatures, with September being the hottest month ever recorded. But sweltering temperatures baking the globe on land and sea have been piling up…
Read more

Comments on New Article by James Hansen

By Michael E. Mann   11/01/23  
Let me preface my commentary by saying that I have nothing but the greatest respect for James Hansen. He has been a fundamental contributor to the advance of our science and a personal hero to…
Read more

Assessing the size and uncertainty of remaining carbon budgets

By Robin D. Lamboll, Zebedee R. J. Nicholls and Others   10/30/23  
The remaining carbon budget (RCB), the net amount of CO2 humans can still emit without exceeding a chosen global warming limit, is often used to evaluate political action against the goals of the Paris Agreement.…
Read more

Why many scientists are now saying climate change is an all-out ‘emergency’

By Shannon Osaka   10/30/23  
Bill Ripple had never been an activist. The Oregon State University ecologist had spent his career wandering through the hills and canyons of Yellowstone National Park, tracking the health of wolves and other large carnivores.…
Read more

Analysis: Global CO2 emissions could peak as soon as 2023, IEA data reveals

By Simon Evans and Verner Viisainen   10/26/23  
Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy use and industry could peak as soon as this year, according to Carbon Brief analysis of figures from the International Energy Agency (IEA). The IEA’s latest World Energy…
Read more

The 2023 state of the climate report: Entering uncharted territory

By William J Ripple, Christopher Wolf and Others   10/24/23  
Life on planet Earth is under siege. We are now in an uncharted territory. For several decades, scientists have consistently warned of a future marked by extreme climatic conditions because of escalating global temperatures caused…
Read more

World shift to clean energy is unstoppable, IEA report says

By Esme Stallard   10/24/23  
The world is on an "unstoppable" shift towards renewable energy but the phase down of fossil fuels is not happening quickly enough, a new report says. The International Energy Agency, the global energy watchdog, predicted…
Read more

Earth’s ‘vital signs’ worse than at any time in human history, scientists warn

By Damian Carrington   10/24/23  
Earth’s “vital signs” are worse than at any time in human history, an international team of scientists has warned, meaning life on the planet is in peril. Their report found that 20 of the 35…
Read more

In praise of the IEA

By Megan Darby   10/02/23  
Three years ago, we at Climate Home News were not that convinced by the International Energy Agency’s climate stance. Its chief Fatih Birol was quick to call for a green recovery from the Covid pandemic.…
Read more

7 Charts on the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of the Energy Transition

By Emily Pontecorvo   09/26/23  
Two years ago, the International Energy Agency sent shockwaves through the climate community when it published its first net-zero by 2050 roadmap. The report made a declaration that proved to be a sort of energy…
Read more

Net Zero Roadmap: A Global Pathway to Keep the 1.5 °C Goal in Reach

In May 2021, the IEA published its landmark report Net Zero Emissions by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. The report set out a narrow but feasible pathway for the global energy sector…
Read more

Opinion: Yes, there was global warming in prehistoric times. But nothing in millions of years compares with what we see today

By Michael E. Mann   09/24/23  
“The climate is always changing!” So goes a popular refrain from climate deniers who continue to claim that there’s nothing special about this particular moment. There is no climate crisis, they say, because the Earth…
Read more

2023 Worst Year On Record For Billion-Dollar Climate Disasters, NOAA Says

By Robert Hart   09/12/23  
This year is already the worst year on record for billion-dollar climate disasters in the U.S., a report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said, as experts warn that extreme events are likely…
Read more

‘Off-the-charts records’: has humanity finally broken the climate?

By Damian Carrington, Nina Lakhani and Others   08/28/23  
The record-shattering heatwaves, wildfires and floods destroying lives in the US, Europe, India, China and beyond in 2023 have raised an alarming question: have humanity’s relentless carbon emissions finally pushed the climate crisis into a…
Read more

UN climate panel chair: Paris agreement’s 1.5-degree target “a big ask”

By Andrew Freedman   08/16/23  
Jim Skea, the new chair of the influential U.N. climate science panel, has doubts about the world's ability to meet the Paris Agreement's most ambitious temperature goal, but wants to make it easier for governments…
Read more

As climate disasters grow, early warning systems become essential

By Adam Wentworth   08/12/23  
The more the world waits to cut carbon emissions, the greater the price on people and planet. This simple fact is borne out by the huge increase in the number of climate-related disasters over the…
Read more

August 2023 El Niño update: back to school

By Emily Becker   08/10/23  
It’s that time again! And by “that time,” I mean the El Niño forecast update, of course. The chance that El Niño—the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (aka “ENSO”) climate pattern—will continue…
Read more

‘Era of global boiling has arrived,’ says UN chief as July set to be hottest month on record

By Ajit Niranjan   07/27/23  
The era of global warming has ended and “the era of global boiling has arrived”, the UN secretary general, António Guterres, has said after scientists confirmed July was on track to be the world’s hottest…
Read more

Scientists detect sign that a crucial ocean current is near collapse

By Sarah Kaplan   07/25/23  
The Atlantic Ocean’s sensitive circulation system has become slower and less resilient, according to a new analysis of 150 years of temperature data — raising the possibility that this crucial element of the climate system…
Read more

Deadly global heatwaves undeniably result of climate crisis, scientists show

By Damian Carrington   07/25/23  
The human-caused climate crisis is undeniably to blame for the deadly heatwaves that have struck Europe and the US in recent weeks, scientists have shown.
Read more

Warming Could Push the Atlantic Past a ‘Tipping Point’ This Century

By Raymond Zhong   07/25/23  
The last time there was a major slowdown in the mighty network of ocean currents that shapes the climate around the North Atlantic, it seems to have plunged Europe into a deep cold for over…
Read more

Heat waves in U.S., Europe ‘virtually impossible’ without climate change, study finds

By Brady Dennis   07/25/23  
The analysis by the World Weather Attribution network, a coalition of scientists that conducts rapid analyses to determine how the warming atmosphere influences extreme weather events, examined weather data and computer model...
Read more

Is it really hotter now than any time in 100,000 years?

By Darrell Kaufman   07/21/23  
As scorching heat grips large swaths of the Earth, a lot of people are trying to put the extreme temperatures into context and asking: When was it ever this hot before? Globally, 2023 has seen…
Read more