Before you do anything else, you might want to see how climate is/will affect migration in the US…



Climate change has already and will continue to fundamentally shift the movements of all life on Earth. 

Are there currently any uninhabitable parts of the earth?

Yes, 1% of the Earth is considered a “barely livable” hot-zone.

Will those barely livable hot zones increase in the future?

By 2070 that 1% could rise to 19%, as we experience the consequences of greater temperature increasesin the next 50 years than the previous 6,000. Areas most affected by extreme heat will be in the south.

How will climate affect migration?

Climate displacement is expected to increase with rising sea levels and growing frequency of severe weather events like drought, extreme heat, wildfires, and flooding.

Where will people go?

  • Higher average temperatures and increased frequency of extreme weather events will force people to move to more ‘climate stable’ regions in the north.
  • The projected number of migrants travelingnorth from Central America & Mexico will rise to 1.5 million a year by 2050, from more than 700,000in 2022 as climate change impacts, particularly on the agricultural sector, and hotter weather drives poverty.
  • Under the current scenario of increasing greenhouse gas emissions, an estimated 13 million peoplein the U.S. are expected to have their homes inundated as a result of rising sea levels by the end of the century. They will relocate inland.

Will it only be people who migrate?


  • The environmental instability that drives human migration also is transforming the migration patterns of animals. Entire ecosystems are either changing or collapsing and these changes reverberate throughout the animal kingdom. 
  • And, as temperatures rise due to climate change, many plants will have to move to cooler locations to survive, often relying on birds and other wildlife to carry their seeds.

What other effects does migration have?

Climate migration in the US triggers substantial consequences, not only through the physical devastation brought by severe weather events. It also jeopardizes compounding inequalities, including socio-economic status, health, and overall well-being, putting them at risk of deterioration. 

Is migration inevitable?

Migration is a logical consequence of changing environmental conditions and is considered a wise adaptation strategy

  • In 2018, the World Bank estimated approximately 143 millionpeople will be displaced due to climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. This number reflects only a fraction of displacement and does not recognize the situation in the United States at all. It does underscore the expectation that disadvantaged regions will bear a greater burden of climate change and therefore it is imperative for migration policy to adapt to these changing migratory conditions. 

How does this affect future evolution?

The extent to which the worldwide landscape is changed is hugely dependent on carbon emissions, which is largely reliant on whether or not policies are passed that structurally enforce a rapid decline in emissions. 

With climate migration comes societal transformation and the acute need for capable leadership who can prepare for these inevitable changes. 

New Report Says Climate Change Could Force Millions to Move Within Their Countries


America’s Climate Boomtowns Are Waiting

By Abrahm Lustgarten 03/23/24
As my airplane flew low over the flatlands of western Michigan on a dreary December afternoon, sunbursts splintered the soot-toned clouds and made mirrors out of the flooded fields below. There was plenty of rain…
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America Is on Fire, Says One Climate Writer. Should You Flee?

By Jon Gertner 03/22/24
It’s happening already, of course. You can see it in the blazes in California, incinerating homes and forcing residents to escape the terror of wildfires. You can glimpse it in Arizona, where droughts have pushed…
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Disasters Forced 2.5 Million Americans From Their Homes Last Year

By Aidan Gardiner 02/22/24
An estimated 2.5 million people were forced from their homes in the United States by weather-related disasters in 2023, according to new data from the Census Bureau. The numbers, issued on Thursday, paint a more…
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Unusually dry growing seasons in Central America associated with migration to the US

By University of Texas at Austin 10/30/23
In a new article in Scientific Reports, a team of scholars from the University of Utah and The University of Texas at Austin found that drier than normal periods during growing seasons in Central America…
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Why New York Is Experiencing a Migrant Crisis

By Will Freeman 10/05/23
The city typically receives tens of thousands of new arrivals each year. But since spring 2022, numbers have been rising especially quickly. More than 118,000 migrants and asylum seekers, most of whom hail from countries…
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How Climate Change is Making it Harder Than Ever to Own a Home

By Katherine McLaughlin 09/28/23
When it comes to unsolicited requests for advice, June through October is Jesse Keenan’s busy season. “That’s when I get the most amount of emails, calls, or even handwritten letters,” Keenan, an associate professor of…
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Central American Immigrants in the United States

By Nicole Ward and Jeanne Batalova 05/10/23
Given the close cultural, geographic, and trade ties between the United States and countries in Central America, migration to the United States and within the region has been a longstanding phenomenon.
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Retreat in Rodanthe

By Jahi Chikwendiu 03/13/23
Along three blocks in a North Carolina beach town, severe erosion is upending life, forcing hard choices and offering a glimpse of the dilemmas other coastal communities will face
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Out-of-Towners Head to ‘Climate-Proof Duluth’

By Debra Kamin 03/10/23
Surfing in Minnesota is just like surfing in Southern California, John Jenkins says, as long as you ignore the icicles on your wet suit. Mr. Jenkins, 38, is a child of Orange County. But a…
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Animals and people clashing more frequently thanks to climate change

By Kristoffer Tigue 02/28/23
From whales colliding with ships to elephants wandering into villages in search of water, climate impacts have made human-wildlife conflicts a global problem.
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Rising seas risk climate migration on ‘biblical scale,’ says U.N. chief

By Rachel Pannett 02/15/23
The world is heading toward a "death sentence for vulnerable countries," says U.N. Secretary-General António Guterres.
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Lost for words: fears of ‘catastrophic’ language loss due to rising seas

By Karen McVeigh 01/16/23
Climate crisis could be the ‘nail in the coffin’ for half of languages spoken by the end of the century, say linguists, as coastal communities are forced to migrateEvery 40 days a language dies. This…
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Climate Change and Displaced Persons – University Network for Human Rights

As severe weather patterns intensify, climate change will continue to displace more communities across the globe. Through our analysis, we develop seven concrete reforms for US immigration and climate policy which extend protections to those…

What Are Climate Migrants and Where Are They Moving?

It's easy to look at climate change as an eventual problem instead of a current one. The reality, though, is that climate shifts and weather events are already driving people all over the U.S. –…

World Migration Report 2020

Since 2000, IOM has been producing world migration reports. The World Migration Report 2020, the tenth in the world migration report series, has been produced to contribute to increased understanding of migration throughout the world.…

New Climate Maps Show a Transformed United States

According to new data from the Rhodium Group analyzed by ProPublica and The New York Times Magazine, warming temperatures and changing rainfall will drive agriculture and temperate climates northward, while sea level rise will consume…

The Great Climate Migration

This article, the first in a series on global climate migration, is a partnership between ProPublica and The New York Times Magazine, with support from the Pulitzer Center.

Climate Change and Migration

The topic of climate change and migration attracts a strong following from the media and produces an increase in academic literature and reports from international governmental institutions and NGOs.

Migration and the climate crisis: the UN’s search for solutions

Throughout human history, migration and climate have always been connected, but in the modern era, the impacts of the man-made climate crisis are likely to extensively change the patterns of human settlement.

The climate crisis, migration, and refugees

The following is one of eight briefs commissioned for the 16th annual Brookings Blum Roundtable, “2020 and beyond: Maintaining the bipartisan narrative on US global development.”

Where will you go when sea-level rise floods your city? This map shows you

A new study models future migration patterns in the U.S. as the sea level continues rising.

Modeling migration patterns in the USA under sea level rise

Sea level rise in the United States will lead to large scale migration in the future. We propose a framework to examine future climate migration patterns using models of human migration. Our framework requires that…


More Americans are moving into harm’s way as climate disasters increase

By Rachel Ramirez   12/08/22  
People are moving in droves to places with a high risk of climate disasters, researchers say, despite extreme weather events increasing in frequency and intensity in recent years.
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Climate change plays role in home buyers’ and sellers’ decisions

By Sheri Koones   10/07/22  
Frances Anderton has covered Los Angeles design and architecture in print, podcasts, exhibitions, and at public events. For many years Anderton is well known in LA as the host of DnA: Design and Architecture, broadcast…
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Come along as we connect the dots between climate, migration and the far-right

By Ari Shapiro   10/03/22  
As a climate change expert at the World Bank, Arame Tall is deeply familiar with the facts and figures of global warming. She understands how rising seas and changing weather cycles are affecting her home…
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In Louisiana, the first US climate refugees find a new safe haven

Native Americans forced from their homes as the island they were built on gradually sinks into the Gulf of Mexico are now settling into new homes thanks to a federal resettlement grant...
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Statement: Leaders of Refugee, Policy Organizations Call on Biden Administration to Prioritize Climate Impacted Populations for Resettlement

Leaders of 14 refugee resettlement and policy organizations today sent a letter to the White House calling on the Biden administration to create resettlement pathways for climate impacted populations. The letter asks that the administration…
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Migrants share lessons with US to improve climate resilience

By Thomson Reuters Foundation   08/24/22  
When Benetick Kabua Maddison moved to the United States from the Marshall Islands aged six, it was partly due to the effects of global warming: flooding had damaged his low-lying Pacific Island home and his…
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Winter ticks wiped out nearly 90% of the moose calves scientists tracked in part of Maine last year

By Kevin Miller and Others   05/18/22  
Maine is home to the largest moose population in the lower 48 states. But in one of the moosiest corners of the state, nearly 90% of the calves tracked by biologists last winter didn’t survive…
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Americans are fleeing climate change — here’s where they can go

By Lindsey Jacobson   04/21/22  
Millions of Americans are living in communities with precarious climate conditions, in houses that feel overpriced. There is a solution for many of these people, though: Move to one of the so-called climate havens.
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The Next American Migration: What Cities Should Know About Climate Change and Populations on the Move

Climate change is no longer just a problem for future generations – it is here now, with storms, wildfires, droughts and extreme temperatures becoming more prevalent in our cities, towns and villages. As these impacts…
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What Cities Should Know About Climate Change and Populations on the Move

By Anna Marandi and Kelly Leilani   04/21/22  
Americans have historically been some of the most mobile people in the world, continually seeking better housing and job opportunities. However, in recent years, mobility — particularly among young Americans — has slowed, due largely…
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As climate fears mount, some in U.S. are deciding to relocate

By Jon Hurdle   03/24/22  
As wildfires worsen and sea levels rise, a small but growing number of Americans are choosing to move to places such as New England or the Appalachian Mountains that are seen as safe havens from…
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The first step to preparing for surging climate migration? Defining it

By Ari Shapiro   02/23/22  
There are calls to better define what constitutes "climate migration" amid concern that policies are not keeping up with the growing issue and countries are failing to properly help those fleeing disasters.
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Plants at risk of extinction as climate crisis disrupts animal migration

By Hibaq Farah   01/13/22  
The decline of seed-dispersing animals is damaging plants’ ability to adapt to climate breakdown, a study has found. Almost half of all plant species depend on animals to spread their seeds, but scientists fear these…
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As temperatures rise, crossing into the US will become even more deadly

By Mark Armao   12/21/21  
When undocumented migrants cross the U.S.–Mexico border into southern Arizona, they face a perilous journey through the Sonoran Desert, some of the most inhospitable terrain in North America. Summer temperatures in the region routinely top…
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The Migrant Workers Who Follow Climate Disasters

By Sarah Stillman   11/01/21  
Bellaliz Gonzalez had never heard of Midland, Michigan, before a white van dropped her off there in late May, 2020. The journey from her home in Miami, with twelve colleagues, had taken around twenty-two hours.…
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Facing floods and fires, undocumented immigrants have nowhere to turn for help

By María Paula Rubiano A.   10/12/21  
When Hurricane Ida hit New York City on September 16, it dumped more than three inches of rain an hour. Sewers overflowed, streets turned into rivers, and thousands of homes and basements across the city’s…
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The US Can’t Deport Its Way Out of the Climate Migration Crisis

By Dr. Mila Turner   10/02/21  
The US has begun to forcibly expel hundreds of Haitian asylum seekers and other migrants, returning them to the dire economic, political, and climate crises from which they fled. The US plan to repatriate over 12,000 more individuals in…
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Climate Change is Fueling a Wave of Migration, Study Finds

By Kate Zerrenner   09/17/21  
Global leaders will convene in New York City for Climate Week next week, and environmental justice is again one of the main themes for discussion. The timing of the event comes on the heels of a new World…
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Mother Nature and migration are inextricably linked

By Marshall Terrill   09/17/21  
Climate migration is expected to displace more than 200 million people in the next three decades, according to a recent World Bank report.
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Climate migration is already happening — for homeowners who can afford it

By Salvador Rodriguez   09/16/21  
For those who are already feeling the direct impact of global warming and can afford to relocate, climate change migration has begun.
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What part of the US is safest from climate change?

By Camille Squires   09/04/21  
The storms, floods, heat, and fires that have ravaged the US in 2021 have made the ongoing climate crisis feel especially acute for citizens across the country. And the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change…
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Increasing urban density could reduce climate change

By Dan Grossman   09/02/21  
States are starting to re-think the American dream of white picket fences as they build housing with the idea of reducing carbon emissions.
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Fleeing Disaster Is Hard. Climate Change Is Making It Harder

By Matt Simon   09/01/21  
In Louisiana, Hurricane Ida made landfall on Sunday, devastating communities with 150-mile-per-hour winds and towering storm surges. And in California, the Caldor Fire, which has burned 320 square miles and destroyed over 700 structures, rapidly…
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Climate change be damned. More Americans are moving to high-risk areas

By Vanessa Yurkevich   08/25/21  
Seventeen years ago, when Adriana Nichols moved from New York City to Los Angeles, she had a simple wish list: natural light (her New York studio apartment was dark), a yard and quiet neighbors. She…
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Populations in high-risk climate areas grow: Redfin

By Lexi Lonas   08/25/21  
Populations in areas of the United States at high risk for climate disasters are growing, according to an analysis done by real estate listing service Redfin.
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Climate and refugee organizations say Biden has power to help address climate change-driven displacement

By Rebecca Morin   08/02/21  
A cross section of refugee and climate organizations say President Joe Biden can help address refugees driven from their homelands by climate change-related factors by using a number of actions at his disposal.
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To Flee, or to Stay Until the End and Be Swallowed by the Sea

By Dalia Faheid, Katie Livingstone   07/18/21  
The Rev. Roch Naquin grew up on this island along the Louisiana coast, trapping muskrats and mink in the marsh beyond his family’s home and cutting firewood from a stand of oak trees.
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This Louisiana neighborhood is retreating in the face of climate change

By Alexandria Herr   06/03/21  
In early May, President Joe Biden stood in front of the 70-year old Calcasieu River Bridge in Lake Charles, Louisiana. With the aging bridge in the background, he spoke about the hurricanes that have battered…
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Extreme Weather Displaces Record Numbers of People as Temperatures Rise

By Deutsche Welle   05/21/21  
Storms, floods, wildfires and droughts drove more than 30 million people from their homes last year, as rising temperatures wrought extra chaos on the climate, according to a report published Thursday by the Internal Displacement…
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Climate Migration May Lead to the Next Great Housing Crisis

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns, mainly caused by human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels.
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Freshwater fish are in “catastrophic” decline with one-third facing extinction, report finds

By Sophie Lewis   02/23/21  
Thousands of fish species are facing "catastrophic" decline — threatening the health, food security and livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world. New research shows that one-third of all freshwater fish now…
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As Biden Seeks Answers on Climate’s Impact on Migration, Sydney Declaration Provides Legal Ground Rules for Action

By Jane McAdam   02/19/21  
In an executive order earlier this month, President Joe Biden ordered a report into “climate change and its impact on migration, including forced migration, internal displacement, and planned relocation,” including “options for protection and resettlement…
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Climate Migration Needs Personal Stories

By Cameron Ramey   01/05/21  
Reporting personal stories illustrating the impacts of climate change bears importance beyond feeding reader interest or even good journalism practice. Personal stories give a human face to one of the most tangible consequences of unmitigated…
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New maps document big-game migrations across the western United States

For the first time, state and federal wildlife biologists have come together to map the migrations of ungulates across America's West. The maps will help land managers and conservationists pinpoint actions necessary to keep migration…
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How Climate Migration Will Reshape America

By Abrahm Lustgarten   09/15/20  
August besieged California with a heat unseen in generations. A surge in air-conditioning broke the state’s electrical grid, leaving a population already ravaged by the coronavirus to work remotely by the dim light of their…
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New Climate Maps Show a Transformed United States

By Al Shaw, Abrahm Lustgarten and Jeremy W. Goldsmith   09/15/20  
According to new data from the Rhodium Group analyzed by ProPublica and The New York Times Magazine, warming temperatures and changing rainfall will drive agriculture and temperate climates northward, while sea level rise will consume…
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Climate change could lead to mass migration as people head north to survive

By Abrahm Lustgarten   07/30/20  
The Earth's temperature is expected to drastically increase over the next 50 years, which will likely force entire nations of people to travel north for survival. ProPublica senior environmental reporter Abrahm Lustgarten mapped out what…
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Climate Change Will Drive People Across Borders

By Sonia Shah   07/29/20  
Extreme wildfires savaged Northern California in 2018, leaving the homeless to camp out in a Home Depot parking lot in Oakland, not far from the billionaire hub of Silicon Valley. Hurricane Irma displaced more than…
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Believe It Or Not, Forests Migrate — But Not Fast Enough For Climate Change

By Ari Shapiro   07/28/20  
We're all familiar with migration: Wildebeests gallop across Africa, Monarch butterflies flit across the Americas ... but did you know that forests migrate, too?
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Climate change-influenced refugee crisis may lead to long-term settlement issues

By Matt Swayne   07/27/20  
Computer models may reveal that climate change prompts a more nuanced circular migration pattern.
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Behind the Cover: Climate Migration

By Kathy Ryan   07/24/20  
This week’s cover story focuses on the disruptive scale of migration that may be approaching because of climate change. The photojournalist Meridith Kohut photographed an Indigenous agricultural worker, Martín Yat Chen, who is squatting on…
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The Great Climate Migration

By Abrahm Lustgarten   07/23/20  
Early in 2019, a year before the world shut its borders completely, Jorge A. knew he had to get out of Guatemala. The land was turning against him. For five years, it almost never rained.
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The Great Climate Migration Has Begun

New research suggests climate change will cause humans to move in unprecedented numbers. The Times Magazine partnered with ProPublica and data scientists to understand how...
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Climate woes growing for women, hit worst by displacement and migration

By Megan Rowling   07/07/20  
From sexual violence in displacement camps to extra farm work and greater risk of illness, women shoulder a bigger burden from worsening extreme weather and other climate pressures pushing people to move for survival, a…
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50 Years From Now, Many Densely Populated Parts of the World Could be Too Hot for Humans

By Bob Berwyn   05/04/20  
A new study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows a "surprisingly narrow" human climate niche—between 52 degrees Fahrenheit to 59 degrees Fahrenheit. And it will shift geographically more in…
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Extreme weather exiles: how climate change is turning Europeans into migrants

By Marta Rodriguez Martinez & Lillo Montalto Monella   03/12/20  
Climate change could leave you homeless overnight – right here, in Europe. Flash floods, mudslides and wildfires triggered by heatwaves are among the extreme weather events becoming increasingly common, thanks to climate change.
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The climate crisis is now a bigger threat to humanity than war

By Liam Pritchett   03/04/20  
The ongoing climate crisis is causing more displacement and forced migration—through climate change-related natural disasters—than conflict and violence.
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Is the World Ignoring Climate Change Migrants?

By Reiss Edwards   02/27/20  
There are millions of people on this planet today already directly affected by climate change. While large swathes of the global population are currently buffered from the immediate impacts of climate change on their daily…
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How Warming Winters Are Affecting Everything Facebook Twitter Flipboard Email

By Lauren Sommer, Mose Buchele   02/18/20  
Winters are warming faster than other seasons across much of the United States. While that may sound like a welcome change for those bundled in scarves and hats, it's causing a cascade of unpredictable impacts…
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Climate Change Is Altering Migration Patterns Regionally and Globally

By Jayla Lundstrom   12/03/19  
Since at least 2014, a growing number of asylum-seekers from Central America have arrived at the U.S.-Mexico border. While the response from the Obama administration raised genuine protection concerns, the Trump administration has taken the…
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